Social Connections: Bridges, Bonds and Links

Please click each section heading for the full text of that section. Footnotes link to the bottom of this page.

1. Social bonds (connections within a community defined by, for example, ethnic, national or religious identity); 2. Social bridges (with members of other communities); and 3. Social links (with institutions, including local and central government services).

Ager & Strang, 2004, Indicators of Integration (PDF)


[1] Ager & Strang, 2004, Indicators of Integration – Final Report (Home Office). Link.

[2] Available from the NatCen website. Link.

[3] Improvement Service, 2018. Scotland’s Councillors, 2017-2022. Link.

[4] Scottish Government Social Research, 2008. National Survey of Local Government Candidates, 2007. Link.

[5] Aberdeen City Voice. Link.

[6] GREC, briefing available online. Link. There were six speakers and 65 participants in total.

[7] There were 167 survey participants, including 73 from ethnic minority backgrounds.

[8] Evaluation Report available online. Link.

[9] It should be noted that this is a summary of lessons learned – the full report includes more detail and examples.

[10] Summary report available online. Link.