Please click each section heading for the full text of that section. Footnotes link to the bottom of this page.

As discussed in the Demographics section, ethnicity categories for pupils have become less meaningful since 2018. Therefore, this chapter will retain the 2018 quantitative data. The consequences of pandemic-related disruption remain to be seen, but it is important to remember that many ethnic minority families face the interconnected challenges of low-wage or insecure employment, overcrowding, insecure tenancy, poverty, and digital exclusion.


[1] Pupil Census 2016/17, Tables 4.5, 7.2, 7.3, 10, 11.1. Link.

[2] Scottish Government, Attainment and Leavers’ Destination Data, 2015/16. Link.

[3] Ethnicity data was recorded as ‘white Scottish,’ ‘White non-Scottish’ and the other categories of non-‘white’ ethnicities.

[4] Scotland’s Census 2011, Table LC5202SC.

[5] GREC, briefing available online. Link. There were six speakers and 65 participants in total.

[6] More than 200 people took part in this research.

[7] Summary write-up based on SSAMIS project fieldwork, 2014-15. (link)

[8] Moray Council, 2016, Moray Approach to Bullying in Schools. (link)